Measuring Pumpkin & Shortening & Re Dutch Processed Cocoa

Christy Question:Hi Rose, I've got a couple of questions that Im sure you can answer for me. The first is this. When measuring out ingredients like pumpkin and shortening, which measure do I use, a liquid or a dry measure? My next question is about baking cocoa. When a recipe calls for dutch process baking cocoa, can regular cocoa be substituted? I seem to have trouble finding dutch process in my area. Thank you so much for your responses! Rose Reply: pumpkin and shortening are both considered solids so they need to be measured in solid measuring cups, i.e. those with unbroken rims (no spouts) so you can level them off. the wonder cup is great for shortening bc you can push the shortening, which tends to be messy, out of it without having to touch it or scrape it with a spatula. of course i think weighing is a lot easier than any form of measuring cup! re dutch processed cocoa, green and black organic is available at many health food stores and is a dutch processed variety. when a recipe is formulated for dutch processed it usually won’t work as well with regular cocoa which usually calls for baking soda to neutralize the acidity. some recipes, however, will be fine but it’s impossible to know without trying.