The Bread Bible in Czech!

i just came home to a marvelous surprise from my beloved editor of "the bread bible," maria guarnaschelli. she send me the hot off the press czech edition. the cover photo and inside photos are the same but the language required 100 more pages and i hardly recognize a single word! my name appears as rose levyova beranbaumova with accent marks over both a's. the name of the book ib "bible domaciho peceni"--wonder if domaciho refers to domestic or home. anyway, it is the first time i've seen any of my books in another language because, as they say re the uk edition--two countries separated by one language! back to czech, there sure are an astonishing number and variety of accent marks.i sure hope to get some feedback from bread bakers in czechoslovakia but please in english!!!

It Was Worth It!!!

The Cubanos were out of this world! What had been less than moist but flavorful 5 day old pork shoulder came alive with a gilding of mayo, the bread and butter pickles from the farmer's market--less sweet than the usual. The slice of ham was a perfect addition and the melted Swiss cheese bound it all together. But it was the bread that was the star--crisp crust, soft flavorful crumb!

The recipe for the bread is in the Bread Bible and all you have to do to make these great rolls is divide it in 6 (5 ounces/144 grams each) and shape them into 6 inch long batons. They only takes 20 minutes to bake. Cool and split in half horizontally. Heaven! For the Cubano, it took 10 minutes on medium high in a panini maker and in a 350 oven wrapped in foil, and weighted between two baking sheets with an oven-proof skillet on top it will take about 20 minutes or until the cheese melts.

Zito's Lard Bread in the Bread Bible

i've been waiting to post this exciting news until the new gold medal harvest king flour launched but now that any day it will be on the shelves i can restrain myself no longer!i was never entirely happy with the recipe as it appeared in the bread bible and finally got to the bottom of it. zito's never actually made this bread--it was made by parisi bakery and they told me the secret. instead of 3 ounces of prosciutto they use a combination of 6 ounces of prosciutto, pepperoni, and spicy hot sopresseta. They also add about 2 tablespoons of lard to the dough. NO WONDER!!! for extra intensity, they wait til the end of the day when all the meats have had a chance to dry more and use the hard dried ends. the reason i was waiting for the terrific new harvest king flour to become available is that it is the perfect protein content for this bread. if it isn't in your market yet and you just can't wait, use half bread flour half unbleached all-purpose. Here's a preview of the new headnote that will appear in the fourth printing of the bread bible, but if you have the book all you need to do is omit the bacon fat brushed on top, add the lard to the dough together with the water, and use the delicious meat combination (cut into pieces 1/4 to 1/2 inch in size).

sadly zito’s is now closed, but the bread can still be purchased at parisi bakery on mott street. they call it by its original name: lard bread. parisi shared another important secret with me that makes all the difference: In addition to the prosciutto, they also add pepperoni and spicy hot sopresseta. they use the dried ends of these sausages for extra flavor intensity. And they also add a little lard to the dough both for flavor and a crisper crust.


NANCY QUESTION: I followed the traditional challah recipe exactly and caught the mistake to add the 1 tsp yeast to the sponge. After many hours in a very warm environment, the dough hardly rose. I tried it several times with no luck and even switched yeast which is very much alive. There is definitely something wrong with the proportion of ing. I'm an advanced baker and it's gotta be a problem with the recipe. also after making the sponge, do i immediately add the flour blanket or let the sponge sit for an hour first? When the flour blanket is added, can i refrigerate it that way? If so do i taked it out to come to room temp and then mix? I searched the book for answers and was more confused. Please help. I know once its right it will be sooo delicious like so many of the recipes i've made from the cake bible. I'm a diehard baker and have learned more from your books than any other. Thank you.

ROSE REPLY: bread that is rich in egg, butter, and sugar or honey, is very slow to rise. You can speed rising by putting it in a warm environment with hot water in a container, such as an oven without a pilot light but with just the light bulb on. You don't want the temperature to be above 85°. If this doesn't work, it has to be the yeast. I'm sure as an experienced Baker you'll are not killing the yeast with excessive heat. you could also try increasing the yeast. But the recipe as I wrote it works for me. When making a sponge, I always like to put the flour blanket on it as soon as possible. Then I cover the bowl with plastic wrap to keep any part of the sponge that bubbles through the surface of the flour blanket from drying, and refrigerate it.

I do mention in the book temperature the dough should be depending on the different methods of mixing it, for example, if you are using a stand mixer, you want it to be colder when you start mixing then if you're using a bread machine, because the friction of the beater raises the heat of the dough. When using a food processor, I have everything as cold as possible because the movement of the blades creates the most heat.

Please look through the book, exact temperatures are given for all methods. In the coming weeks, I will be offering my new recipe for challah, that incorporates old sourdough starter. It makes braiding dough much easier because of the extra elasticity, and I think the resulting bread is even more delicious. I can't wait to post this recipe -- the picture is so stunning! But I wanted to answer everybody's questions before I posted any new things.

Corrections: The Bread Bible

The following is the complete list of errors and corrections from The Bread Bible by Rose Levy Beranbaum.  Use the comments below to report anything else you find.

In the CRANBERRY-BANANA-WALNUT QUICK BREAD, page 101, the correct baking temperature is 350 degrees F.

In the IRISH SODA BREAD, page 150 The dough should be divided into 15 equal pieces of 50 grams each (when baked each one is about 44 grams). If one is not using a scale it would be best to divide the dough in half and then each piece in 8ths which would make slightly smaller rolls of about 46 grams each instead of 50 but easier to make all the same size when doing it by eye.

In the crisper flat BIALLY variation on page 165, Matthew suggests using 1 teaspoon of poppy seeds per bialy or a total of 2 tablespoons/18 grams.

In the PRETZEL BREAD on page 172, step #2..Empty the dough onto a counter and shape it into a ball.Let it sit covered for 1 hour (it will relax and spread out slightly).  Divide it into 4 pieces, divide each piece into 3 (total 12 pieces--about 1.3 ounces/33 grams each) and roll each into a ball.  Shape each ball into a tapered 4-inch little football,, 1-inch wide in the middle. 

In the DUTCH BABY on page 182, Hand Method, after "slowly beat in" add the words milk before "the eggs."

In the ROSEMARY FOCACCIA SHEET on page 205, it may take longer than 20 minutes to form a ball. For the airiest texture and largest holes, allow the dough to double for the final rise and deeply dimple the dough with wet or oiled fingertips just before baking.

In the BUTTER-DIPPED DINNER ROLLS on page 249, the yield is correct as 12 rolls and the dough for each should weigh about 50 grams; page 254, if not using dry milk you can replace the water with 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons of milk.

In the Velvety Buckwheat Bread on page 308, replace the water with 3/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon/6.7 ounces/192 grams of the water and 3/4 cup/6.5 ounces/182 grams sour cream.

In the RYE BREAD recipe on page 326, on the flour mixture chart, the 2 1/4 cups bread flour weigh 12.3 ounces / 351 grams, and step #2: eliminate the words 'rye flour.' (Rye flour is used only in the sponge on page 325.)

in the Authentic Pumpernickel Bread recipe on page 329, under Oven Temperature: If using La Cloche, preheat the oven to 425˚F, then 400˚F.

In the PUMPERNICKEL BREAD recipe on page 333, the oven is preheated at 400˚F but then should be lowered to 375˚F.

In BRINNA'S PUGLIESE on page 347, the water should be 6 tablespoons (not teaspoons). In the GOLDEN SEMOLINA TORPEDO on page 366, step #2: ...whisk together ALL BUT 1/4 cup of the durum flour.

In PUGLIESE on page 363, step #5...until it has increased by about 1-1/2 times, 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

in SEMOLINA TORPEDO on page 366 step #2...In a medium bowl whisk together the durum flour and yeast. Then whisk in the salt...on page 367, step #6...Preheat the oven to 425˚F, or 450˚F if using La Cloche.

In the PROSCIUTTO RING on page 371, the bread will weigh 1-1/2 pounds/690 grams and in the chart, the meat mixture should be 1-1/2 cups/6 ounces/170 grams.

in THE BEER BREAD on page 376, under the mixer method, it should read: if it is too sticky add in a little flour...

in THE TEN GRAIN TORPEDO on page 396, step #4...knead for 7 minutes. The dough will be dry.

in THE ALMOND FIG BREAD on page 412 There have been some questions about the weight of 75 grams for the coarsley chopped slivered or whole almonds.  It is correct. The volume, however is a little under 1 cup. It will not hurt, however to use 1 cup. 

in all the SOURDOUGH RECIPES: What I should have written was: If making bread the next day, or if starting to increase the starter the next day instead of if baking....the rational here is that if you, for example, have a weekly schedule of feeding the starter every Monday, but you don't want to start increasing the starter for bread baking until Tuesday so you can bake on Wednesday, you need to let it sit for 2 hours after feeding it and then refrigerate it until Tuesday when you start the increasing process. (All this is far easier to do than to put in to words!)

in the SOURDOUGH RYE on page 453, you will be increasing the starter by 4 times, from 25 grams to 100 grams.

In the SOURDOUGH RYE on page 454, Hand Method, use the same amount of starter as is on the chart above (1-1/2 cups).

In the SOURDOUGH PUMPERNICKEL on page 462 (Mixer Method and Hand Method) use the same amount of starter as is on the chart on page 461 (1 cup plus 2 tablespoons).
on page 463, step 7, oven temperature should be 400˚F, and on page 464 step 8 lower it to 375˚F. If using sesame seeds, add them after the glaze.

In the SOURDOUGH WHEAT BREAD SEEDS on page 468, after the first paragraph add: "Cover tightly and allow it to sit at room temperature 8 to 12 hours. It will have puffed slightly. Proceed to step 2.
At step 2 add the words "That night..."
At step 4 on the following page add the words "The next morning"

in the PANETTONE on page 513, use only 1/4 teaspoon of fiori di Sicilia (the 1/2 teaspoon listed in the earlier printings is just a bit too intense)

In the CHALLAH on page 517, when making the sponge add the yeast listed in the ingredients.
In all breads, when making a starter that you plan to have sit for more than 4 hours, refrigerate it after the first hour at room temperature.

CANADIAN FLOUR: Canadian unbleached all-purpose and Canadian bread flour perform well in my yeast bread recipes. For quick breads using butter, however, it is necessary to use bleached all purpose flour or the center of the bread will fall and have a gloppy texture on cooling. For more information or specific questions regarding Canadian flour/brands and baking, you can contact

In the Ingredient Section for Weights on page 572, the listing for dry milk refers to King Arthur's special dry milk at 10 grams per 1 tablespoon. Instant dry milk is only 4 grams per tablespoon. If using instant dry milk instead of King Arthur's use double the volume.

Raisin Pecan Bread

ADAM QUESTION: What am I doing wrong? I have attempted to make your raisin pecan bread at least 4 times. Each time the bread appears to process correctly except the final product does not rise enough making a very heavy bread.

ROSE REPLY: when you say it doesn't rise enough do you mean that it doesn't reach the height of 3 inches listed on the recipe? this is a dense bread but tender due to the ground pecans replacing some of the flour. coincidentall, i just made this bread today. it's one of my favorites. i now add 75 grams of old starter and 1/16th teaspoon more salt and make the dough a day ahead which gives extra flavor. i also bake it on a cushionair baking sheet (you can also use two baking sheets one-on-top of the other--the keep the dough and raisins that rise to the surface from over-browning. if a bread isn't pictured, it is very hard to imagine the texture which is why i gave the finished height. and this is why i'm so thrilled that my next book will have the cakes photographed so everyone can see exactly what they're supposed to look like!

More on Sour Dough Starters

DAVID QUESTION: i'm getting frustrated with the stiff sourdough. its a hit or miss struggle to get it to double consistently after feedings. i had much better luck with the liquid starter. i may throw in the towel and reconvert it back to a liquid one. is there anything wrong with doing this?? and do you have a quick recipe for switching it back to a liquid starter?

ROSE REPLY: it's fine to put the starter back into the liquid state. please follow the directions in the book. if you want it to go faster, since you know the consistency of the liquid starter, you can just add water to reach that consistency.

Sourdough Starters

DAVID QUESTION AND COMMENTS: hi rose, since i wrote the last email i switched over from a liquid starter to a stiff one. the liquid one was going great and when i added the flour to make it a stiff one it looked like that one was expanding like crazy too. but then i threw out all but the 1/4 cup of starter and fed it with the 50g flour/25g water and it just kind of went flat again. i threw out all but 1/4 cup and fed it again the same way and it didn't rise that time either. the next day instead of throwing any out i just added the fresh flour and water and it woke back up! since then i have started by only throwing out half and then a little more than that each feeding so it keeps some strength. That seems to work out ok as i scale down the amount of starter gradually. For fun, i tried expanding the 2 tablespoons of starter you need for the bread and when i leave it at room temp for 6 hours it does rise quite well. does it sound like i am i putting it into the fridge too soon? and has anyone you talked too had this problem when switching from the liquid to stiff starter? sourdough seems to be a struggle of trial and error and its amazing i haven't killed it yet. it's more resilient than most people.

ROSE REPLY: no--haven't heard anyone discuss problems switching over from liquid starter but you happened upon something i think is true--yeast often does better in large quantities of starter. also, as you noticed, it's a live thing and affected by room temp. etc. so if it works for you to leave it out longer bf refrigerating it that's the thing to do!

Pizza Praise

HANK QUESTIONFeedback: Last night we had some friends over towatch the Super Bowl game. I decided to try the pizza recipe on page 189 of The Bread Bible. Although it contradicted everything I thought I knew about making pizza dough, it turned out to be the best pizza I have ever made. My guests all agreed. I strongly recommend it to all. ROSE REPLY Thank you so much Hank for sharing your experience and encouraging other people who might be doubting Thomases to experience this amazing pizza!

Sourdough Starter

PHIL QUESTION: Rose (I feel as though I know you since reading your book since Christmas), In making our own starter we followed the directions day by day, my wife and I are both engineers so lists and organized plans are VERY helpful. The starter didn't appear to follow the double a day that you mentioned. This may have happened while we weren't looking and then deflated. At the 5 day point, we decided to keep with the daily routine. At the 10th day, the starter does look a bit more energetic. Do we need to mature the starter by feeding it every 3 days at room temperature or should it be in the fridge? How much should we be feeding, 60g of flour and water without removing any while it is matured? Should we remove a cup before we start expanding it? We would both appreciate even a quick response. The description that starts at the end of page 429 "for example ......" confuses us when we follow the instructions in the last paragraph of page 433. Thank you in advance for the help.

ROSE REPLY: because sour dough is an alive entity it is not something the you can nail down hundred percent. The last paragraph on page 429 of my book referred to an already established starter. The last paragraph on page 433 is referring to one that is not yet mature.if you have an active starter as I mentioned at the bottom of page 433 if you don't plan to use it for several days feed it to double it, let it sit one hour, and then refrigerate it. as I wrote, for the first two weeks feed it at least three times a week.if you are not feeding it every day you need to refrigerate it between feedings. I wrote that during maturing you need to keep a minimum of 1 cup. In answer to your question how much to feed it, I wrote that you need to at least double it, so this depends on how much you keep. You can do it by a eye, or as I prefer, by weight.

By way of encouragement, everyone who has written to me about problems starting a sourdough starter has, with patience, arrived at a successful one. What follows is one person's very helpful suggestion which I have not tried myself but suspect will work brilliantly: "... i had a asked for advice earlier about a sourdough culture that was going flat and not responding to the feeding after 2 days. the trick i had about using a 50/50 mix of organic rye and bread flour during the next feeding to reintroduce more wild yeast into the sourdough did the trick of waking it back up. it responded right away and i just went back to normal bread flour feedings. i haven't had any troubles since in case anyone in the future has this problem"

Glorious Bread and a Beautiful Blogger!

JEN COMMENTFH_Email: Feedback: I've been baking bread out of The Bread Bible for a couple of years now, and I wanted to let you know what an important book it has been to me. It was the first book on bread baking I bought, and it was such a great way to start out. My mom/grandmother are spoiled on store bought cinammon raisin bread because of you. Even starting out, the bread recipes from your book were easy to follow and turned out marvelous. I've learned alot from books by other bakers (Peter Reinhart and Dan Lepard are my other adopted mentors), but it seems like every time I learn something from them, I come back to your book, and it was there all along. So I guess I'm trying to say thanks, because your book started my obsession with bread baking. I hope someday to open my own bread bakery. Do you have any advise for a pretty good amateur baker like me? Also, I have a food/baking blog, I'd be thrilled to death if you looked at it: Thanks again Rose! ROSE REPLY i'm deeply touched! and i must say in excellent company. one of these days--sooner rather than later--i'm going to list my version of peter reinhart's struan bread--a bread so wonderful i wrote him immediately after baking it for the first time to tell him how proud i am to be in the same profession as he. i don't know dan lepard but i'm sure i'd like to! my best advice to you is to continue reading and baking and trust no one completely except your own personal experience. you will eventually create your own vision of bread. i'm sure you will be a great baker as you already are a great person. i can tell. and besides, it's impossible to be a good baker otherwise--the bread knows--believe me!

Adding Rye Flour to Bread Dough

SCOTT QUESTION AND COMMENTSYour Bread Bible is my favorite Christmas present this year. I spent almost four months in Germany on business this summer and can't handle store-bought American bread anymore, so I've gone back to baking my own, something I learned from my mother and grandmother--although they always made white bread and I longed for the great European style wheat/rye breads. The first thing I did was use your sponge method on my favorite bread recipe and was amazed at the difference. So thanks! In Germany I came across a great bread called Gassenhauer, my favorite of the many breads I ate over there. It's a wheat/rye sourdough with a gorgeous crust. Apparently it's trademarked, though, and I haven't been able to find a recipe anywhere. Ever hear of it? I'd sure like to make something as close to that as I can manage in this country. Now a question: I made your Tyrolean Torpedo to go with the New Year's Eve bean soup I made, and it went over really well--although I can think of a couple things I could have done better. My wife and our guest thought I was crazy saying it could have been better, but you know the drill. It's never quite good enough, especially on the first try. They enjoyed it and I dissected it. And then enjoyed it. But--what I really learned to love when I lived in Austria for a couple years in the eighties and on my German stay last summer is that taste of a combined wheat and rye bread. I know you say you shouldn't substitute, but what would happen if I replaced some of the flour in the Tyrolean bread with rye? Anyway, thanks again for helping me push my bread to a higher level and helping to guide me on my quest for really great bread. If only I had a better oven. The quarry tiles help a lot, but still... ROSE REPLY coincidentally, i'm making the tyrolean bread tomorrow for a party friday night. it's one of my favorites and i add about 75 grams/2.6 oz. of week-old starter (i still use the same amount of instant yeast) and an extra 1/8 teaspoon of salt since the starter has no salt in it. this gives it more depth of flavor, and keeps it fresher longer not that any of it will remain by the end of the party! i sometimes replace some of the flour with durum flour. it would be fine to do the same with rye but you have to be careful not to use too much as even with the acidity of the sourdough the pentosans in the rye will cause it to be gummy. i would start by replacing no more than 20% of the flour with rye. re the german bread--i totally agree--i adore the breads of germany. i never had the pleasure of encountering the "gassenhauer"--anyone out there hear of it or have a recipe? i'll ask hans welker of fci next time i speak to him as he's from germany and surely knows. i'm so thrilled when other people get excited about the breads i love so much. thanks for sharing! do let us know how the rye works with the tyrolean!

The Best Ciabatta I've Ever Had!

SHERRY QUESTIONFeedback: I heard you have the best ciabatta bread recipe to be had but I can't find it, can you help? Thanks either way. ROSE REPLY thanks for asking--it will be on the blog by wed. night. i'm waiting to get back to my home computer to retrieve the photo to go along with it! P.S. Just realized you wrote ciabatta. and it's a focaccia that i've posted! i do have a terrific ciabatta i worked very hard on in my "bread bible" on page 355.

Rosemary Foccacia

Jane Question: I attempted the Rosemary Foccacia a couple of weeks ago and ended up throwing out the mixture. When I completed Step 1, after 30 min. of mixing on my Kitchen Aid, the mix was still totally liquid. After sitting for 7 hrs, I finally tossed. What could I have done wrong?

Rose Reply: many people have had trouble with this recipe but some have succeeded so i have to assume it's either the type of flour or the amount, i.e. if measuring instead of weighing the balance of flour to the enormous amount of water may be off. also, it may take longer than 20 minutes to form a ball but if it doesn't after 25 minutes you need to add a little more flour. For the airiest texture and largest holes, allow the dough to double instead of 1-1/2 times. i also double the yeast now as well. and most important of all, dimple the dough deeply all over before baking. i will be posting a fabulous new focaccia from primo in maine but you will need to have some sort of starter. old starter is fine--it doesn't have to be very active bc the recipe also contains instant yeast. i think this is the best flavor and texture of any focaccia i've ever tasted.

Increasing Yeast

Mike Question:I have been using "The Bread Bible" for two years now & couldn't bake without it. I often make the butter-dipped dinner rolls found on pg. 249. If I want to double the recipe, do I need to double the amount of yeast or should I use less? I doubled the amount once & it seems as though the dough rose much faster that is did in the single batch recipe. I also have an "old" recipe for Swedish limpa rye bread. Is there a way I can convert the amounts of ingredients to grams? I make a great loaf from the old recipe but I would like to standardize the amounts. Rose Reply: please check out the entry about increasing yeast under the bread catagory. essentially i wrote that for smaller amounts i didn't find there was a difference so i double the yeast but for larger batches of dough the yeast seems to multiply more rapidly and less is usually required. but if you found from experience that doubling this recipe made the dough rise faster i would cut back a little simply because a slower rise makes for a more delicious flavor! i'm delighted that you want to convert a favorite recipe to grams. i find it so much more enjoyable working with grams than measuring or even ounces. since you have my book, all the weights are in the back. i would approach it by making the recipe as usual but weighing the ingredients as you measure them. then it will come as close to what your usual results have been.

Rye Bread

Gale Question: I have used your Jewish Rye Bread recipe many, many times and everyone loves it. One question I have--no matter how long I let it rise, it tends to only rise to 3" and tends to spread to 8". How can I get a bread that is smaller in diameter and rises to the 3 and 1/2" that is indicated in your recipe?

Rose Reply: thanks--it's one of my favorite breads and i've been making it for many years. there is a mistake on the recipe--in step 2 i say to add the rye flour but there is no more rye flour to be added. are you getting the same weight of finished dough that i indicate? if you are not weighing you may be getting a different amount of flour and liquid which could affect the rise. but if it is very smooth and elastic and your bread flour is under a year old you should get the same results i do. i wrote on the recipe that my finished loaf is 7-3/4 inches by 4 inches high. if yours is spreading 1/4 inch more that is hardly significant. but the 1 inch less in height is. it could be you are not getting enough oven spring. are you preheating the oven and baking stone for at least 45 minutes? are you steaming the oven? all this helps a great deal to get the maximum rise!

Bread Questions

A New Bread Coming Soonthose of you who are avid sour dough bread bakers, start getting your starters ready because in a few weeks i’m going to post one of the best bread recipes i’ve ever tasted from the wonderful restaurant primo in maine. i’ve tested it every which way but lose and have to admit that price, baker/co owner, is 100% right when he said you have to have a starter for this bread to come out right. it’s a carmelized onion focaccia and you’ll LOVE it! Manrique Question: Dear Ms. Levy Beranbaum, I recently bought a copy of The Bread Bible and I read it when I go to bed! I also try out some recipes, of course. Thank you for your such an interesting book. I've been trying to make baguettes and I'm getting better at it. I do have a question regarding the scrap dough described on page 337. You describe the mixture as "very soft and sticky" but I find that 57.5 grams of flour plus 1.2 grams of salt do not get soft and sticky if I add two tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons of yeast water. Are the quantities that you indicate correct? Thank you very much for your time. Regards, Rose Reply: i notice you are writing from another country so i bet your flour has a higher protein content and is therefore absorbing more water. OR you are measuring and not weighing and getting more flour than i specified. either way, add more unyeasted water until you get the proper consistency. Christine Question: Hi Rose, I love this new site. Thank you for all your hard work. Here's my question. When I want to double a yeast bread recipe, should I also double the amount of yeast? One cookbook I consulted says you should double all the ingredients except the yeast. Maybe you've discussed this in "Bread Bible," (which holds an esteemed place on my bookshelf, by the way) but I haven't been able to find the answer. Thank you! Rose Reply: thank you! i always double the yeast when i double the recipe. i have also read that less yeast is required when recipes are increased but i’m quite sure, especially from experience, that this refers to larger increases. yeast and bread dough seem to behave differently in larger amounts. Cheryl Question: Hi Rose; I have baked from your books for years, and love the Cake Bible, and the Pie Bible and am working my way through the Bread Bible. I've loved everything but tonight I finished baking the panetonne and am somewhat disappointed on two accounts. One, it is barely sweet--almost a non-sweet taste, I would say--and second, the flor de sicilia (which I measured very carefully) has left the bread bitter. I did not alter the recipe at all and it rose beautifully and has a great texture. Is is possible that more sugar or corn syrup should have appeared in the recipe? Thank you for your help. Happy Thanksgiving! Barbara Question: If I use the mini paper molds (individual serving size) instead of the 6”x4” size, what adjustments in time do I need to make at step 8 (final shape and rise) and step 10 baking)? Thanks very much. Your recipes are always the best ever! Rose Reply: smaller panettone bake for 25 to 35 minutes. since the unbaked dough will rise to almost 3 times its height, and it’s nice to have it rise a little above the paper liners during baking, i would fill them about ¾ full. Joyce Question: Hi, I have a recipe from a 1941 cookbook that calls for 1 cake of yeast. Can I use the fresh yeast sold in supermarkets are they the same weight now as then? Also what would be the measurement for active dry yeast? Thanks for all your help. Have a Happy Thanksgiving. Rose Reply: i can’t tell you the size of the cake of yeast but i can tell you about how much yeast to use in relation to the amount of flour in the recipe. also, i’m a great beliver in instant yeast. for 1 cup of bread flour use about ¼ teaspoon instant yeast. if using active dry add a tiny bit more. if using all purpose flour instead of bread flour use a scant ¼ teaspoon instant yeast. these proportions are for the basic hearth bread but if you’re making a bread with a lot of eggs and butter such as a brioche you will need to double the yeast Lou Question: Hi Rose, First, let me start by telling you that I have all of the "Bibles" and they are fantastic. I have yet to have a recipe not come out perfect and I cannot thank you enough for that. Your cheescake and flourless chocolate cake are amazing and I have been asked countless times to make them for friends and co-workers. My new favorite is the Linzertorte. I have a bread question that I hope you can help me with. My favorite bread is the Italian bread that is is found in all of the good bakeries (especially the ones in the Bronx). It is called a Bastone and it is torpedo shaped and covered with sesame seeds. I have searched high and low and cannot find a recipe for it. I have made your Ciabatta and Puglise and they were great, so I am hoping you might have a recipe. Thanks so much for taking the time to read this. Regards, Rose Reply: thank you so much lou for your kind words. i’m sorry to disappoint you but this is not a bread that i have pursued. have you checked carol field’s book “the italian baker?” if she doesn’t have it i don’t know who would. do try the primo focaccia that i plan to post in a few weeks. i think it might make you forgive me for my lapse! Sarah Question: Hi! I made your chocolate chocolate chip bread twice and I think I'm doing something wrong. Everything goes really good until I add the second half of the cocoa paste in two additions. Once it is all incorporated the batter starts to look kind of grainy and possibly loses volume as well. The final product loses some butter which you can actually see almost condensing on the parchment paper used to line the loaf pan, and the flavor is almost a little watery. I followed the timing instructions exactly. Am I overbeating or something? thanks, Rose Reply: it sounds to me like the butter is too cold and can’t stay in suspension. it needs to be soft but squishable (65 to 75 degrees F). it shouldn’t be too soft or warm either. as for the flavor being watery—i wonder what kind of cocoa you are using and perhaps you should try another as this quick bread is intensely chocolatey. try the organic green and black which is fantastic. Betsy Question: Dear Rose-- Love your Bread Bible. Question: I have been trying to perfect the sacaduros and am running into a few snags. The dough looks exactly like your drawings but the finished product does not look like the last drawing. I just don't feel like they poof up enough during baking. I have been baking bread for a long time so feel like I know what I am doing. So my question is: do the rolls need to rise for a bit before you bake them, or only while you are getting the whole pan of them ready? Also--what causes the outer part of the roll to be "too" hard? Thanks a million. Rose Reply: at daniel they did not let them rise before baking but maybe since they were doing a larger quantity they started to rise by the time the last ones were done. it wouldn’t hurt to try letting them rise a little. is suspect that would solve the problem. i was there a couple of weeks ago and found myself giggling bc the saccadoros were so hard on the outside i had trouble breaking into them with my fingers! they are a special treat so they are not always available. now that you’ve made them you know why—they’re very labor intensive! if you would prefer for them to be softer, you could add some oil to the dough. when i want to make softer hamburger buns from my basic heart bread recipe i just add ¼ cup oil for 1 pound/3 cups flour. Mitch Question: I have made your recipe for sacaduros rolls. They are delicious but I am having trouble in having them open up during baking. I think I am sealing it too much when I cross over the dough. Got any hints? Rose Reply: i’m thrilled to hear you’re trying this recipe as my editor and i deliberated long and hard as to whether to sacrifice so many book pages to it! please see my reply above re letting them rise a little after shaping and yes, seal a little less firmly as they won’t open if sealed too tightly.