Category ... New Products
Jan 02, 2016 | From the kitchen of Rose
What a way to start a new year! The choice of a cooktop and sink is something one has to live with for many years. The last time I renovated my savory kitchen was over 20 years ago and I probably could have lived with my old Thermador cooktop and large stainless steel sink surrounded by a granite countertop for many more years to come.
A few years ago, however, I noticed that the granite was cracking slightly around the sink area. I decided to consider it a 'rustic country kitchen' look, until recently when the cracks became so large water leaked into the cabinet below. The image that came to mind was of an ant thinking it had fallen into the Grand Canyon. What happened was that the foundation of the extension that had been constructed to make a longer kitchen had gradually settled.
I realized that if I was going to put in a new sink and countertop, this was the time to replace the cooktop at the other end of the counter that did not have a much desired and useful simmer setting. My step daughter Beth Beranbaum, who is an architect, told me that one of her clients recommended the Capital cooktop. After researching on line it looked like the best choice and indeed it is the most precise and beautifully designed cooktop of my cooking experience.
Next, I needed to find a stainless steel sink and countertop that would be custom designed to fit into the existing kitty corner area. I wanted it to be seamless as it is so much easier to maintain and clean. Elkay sinks have an excellent reputation and they worked with me and Phillipsburgh Marble (the installer) to create the perfect sink.
Having gone this far, I rationalized that such a stunning new sink deserved the best high rise faucet by Dornbracht. Since I have been enjoying this faucet for 2 years in my baking kitchen I knew that it would be ideal.
Construction and reconstruction are always fraught with the unexpected and much agonized hand-wringing, but I have to say that his time around, thanks to the professionalism and cooperation of the company representatives, the vigilance of Bob Baron of Phillipsburgh Marble, and the incredible artistry and skill of Dave McNally (who is a first rate cook and baker in his own right), my upstairs savory kitchen is as much of a joy for cooking as my downstairs kitchen is for baking.
Dec 07, 2015 | From the kitchen of Rose
in Rose's Products
Harold Import Company European-Grade Silicone Rose Levy Beranbaum's Marvelous Mini Cake Pan, Red
I created this silicone pan, inspired by the French financier pan, to bake mini cakes but most of all for brownies. They pop right out--each with a perfect shape and size and fine crust all around that keeps them from staling. It's far easier getting the batter into the molds than having to cut them afterwards!
This batter can be made ahead and transported as there is no leavening to dissipate.
The brownies are light in texture but get their exceptional moistness from cream cheese and fudginess from the best quality cocoa and chocolate. for extra creaminess optional little plugs of ganache are poured into holes made with a chop stick after baking. It is most gratifying to see people casually pop a brownie in their mouths expecting something ordinary and then watch their eyes widen in glad surprise. chocolate never gets better than this.
Continue reading "My New Marvelous Mini Silicone Cake Pan" »
Oct 31, 2015 | From the kitchen of Rose
Many years ago, when chef Daniel Patterson had his first restaurant Elizabeth Daniel in San Francisco, I had a marvelous dinner with my friend, the journalist Leslie Harlib. What was most memorable was the lamb chops that were extraordinarily plush in texture.
When we asked Daniel the secret, he only had to say one word: "sous-vide."
Translated from the French it means cooking "under vacuum." The method for sous-vide cooking, is to place the food that is to be cooked in a water tight (preferably vacuum sealed) bag, which is then heated in a water bath close to the temperature at which the food is to be served. Some foods that benefit from a browned exterior are then finished off briefly by another cooking method, such as pan frying or grilling.
As I explored the possibilities of how I could do this in my home kitchen, I discovered that beyond needing a vacuum device (which I already had), it also required an expensive and high rent counter space "circulator" to maintain a constant low temperature and movement of the water for even cooking. It was at this point that I came to the conclusion that sous-vide was best performed in restaurant kitchens.
A few months ago, along came J. Kenji López-Alt's terrific new book The Food Lab, in which, among other great ideas, he detailed a brilliantly simple way of cooking sous-vide using reclosable freezer storage bags and a beer cooler. I tried it, loved it, and quickly graduated to a dedicated "circulator" from Anova. Not only is the design stunning, it can attach to just about any pot of appropriate size, and it is reasonably affordable. I love the convenience of not having to check the temperature every 30 minutes and then having to add more hot water. (The water in the Anova drops only 1 inch every 8 hours, which is a lot longer than I need to sous-vide the things, I'm cooking. I cook steak and chicken 2 hours, and burgers only 1 hour.) After sous-viding, I grill or brown the meat on the cooktop for just a few minutes.
The Anova even has a free app, which enables one to program time and temperature from a cell phone. Kenji has partnered with Anova to create recipes with wonderfully detailed explanations and choices of how to achieve precise final results. These guides, along with step-by-step color photos, are on the ap and on the on-line site listed in the link below. A new guide will be released every month.
Here's a link to the first one on cooking steak.
Here's a link to several other guides.
Woody and I have been using the Anova several times a week to cook steak, hamburgers, and chicken breasts. Not only is the meat more tender, it's a lot more velvety and moist.
As far as I'm concerned, sous-vide cooking has graduated from a thing of the future to a cutting-edge thing of the present. Thank you Kenji and Anova for making the leap so fun and effortless.
To find out more about Anova click here.
And here's the link to purchase on Amazon:
Anova Culinary Precision Cooker (Black)
Sep 02, 2015 | From the kitchen of Rose
I thought that my favorite thermometer couldn't get any better but as of this moment I was wrong! I just watched the youtube video of the newest model and it has 3 new features that I find to be a major improvement:
1) No matter which direction you insert it, the readout is always right side up.
2) It has a backlight making reading in all light situations much easier.
3) It automatically turns off when set down but wakes up when lifted. No more having to try to close it part way to save battery power and not get the case dirty.
Also, the battery life has been extended to 3000 hours and with the use of one standard AAA battery.
Here's the link.
If you'd like to watch the video, put this link in your browsesr:
Jul 19, 2015 | From the kitchen of Rose
I'm thrilled to announce the launch of my new product line with American Products Group. It is a dream come true as it includes both a rolling pin and dough mat made of the most nonstick material, making it unnecessary to add more than a suggestion of flour to the dough to prevent sticking. It also includes three sets of dough thickness spacers, which I call "fast tracks," to ensure precise thickness when rolling your doughs.
I've known owner Dan O'Malley from his "Magic Dough Mat" for many years now and deeply value his friendship and business integrity. He puts nothing but the best into all his products and they are all made in America. This is our first venture together. It will change your baking life.
Rose's Magic Rolling Pin™
2" diam. x 18"
- Non-stick using SynGlas™
- Dishwasher Safe
- Light Weight
- Removeable end caps for filling to increase the weight or to store the "Fast Tracks"™
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Non-Stick Rolling Pin, Red
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Non-Stick Rolling Pin, Pink
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Non-Stick Rolling Pin, White
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Non-Stick Rolling Pin, Blue
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Non-Stick Rolling Pin, Natural
Rose's Magic Dough Pastry Mat™
18" x 24.5"
- Non-Stick pastry mat with Non-Slip backing
- Features Rose's pie crust recipe and baking tips.
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's Magic Dough Pastry Mat, Cream
Rose's "Fast Tracks"™
Ensures consistent dough thickness
- 3 pairs 1" wide by 18" long:
- 3/32" for pies
- 1/16" for gallettes & tarts
- 1/8" thick for cookies
- Dishwasher Safe Silicone
Rose's Dough Kit
- Rose's Magic Rolling Pin™
- Rose's Magic Dough Pastry Mat™
- Rose's "Fast Tracks"™
Rose Levy Beranbaum 3 Piece Baking Bundle Non-Stick Pastry Mat, Rolling Pin, Dough Thickness Guide
The Recipe Deck
Rose Levy Beranbaum Signature Series Rose's All Original All American Pie Recipe Deck, Multicolor
- 9 Original Pie Recipes
- Rose's Crust and Lattice Recipes
- Rose's Baking Tips
- Wipe-clean laminated surfaces
- Measurement conversion tables
Jan 24, 2015 | From the kitchen of Rose
Ceramic coated pans are great but eventually the lining wears. When I discovered this 100% ceramic pan from Trema I knew I was going to have to try it out. Although it is not as non-stick as ceramic coating it has many other virtues that ceramic coating is lacking: it is microwavable, it can be used both on the cooktop on high heat and under the broiler, and is scratch-proof--it can even be cleaned with a scouring pad if necessary.
One of my favorite uses of the Trema ceramic pan is cooking salmon. I sprinkle the salmon with a sugar and spice seasoning. I start by preheating the broiler. Then I begin heating the pan, first on medium heat for 1 to 2 minutes and then on high heat. I add a little oil and place the salmon skin side up if I want to preserve the skin intact or skin side down.
After about 3 minutes I transfer the pan with the salmon to the broiler and broil for about 2 minutes or until the skin is golden and crispy (or, if skin side down, until the top of the salmon is golden. I like my salmon medium rare so i test it with a metal skewer and if it feels warm it's perfectly cooked. For those who like salmon cooked longer, simply turn off the broiler and leave in the oven for a few minutes more.
Slip a spatula under the samon and transfer it to a serving plate.
Dec 01, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
I'm delighted to report that the amazing little device I find so useful has been funded fully on Kick Start and can be ordered on Amazon:
Crack'em (Cobalt Blue)
Oct 29, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
ThermoWorks Pro-Series High Temp Air Probe with Grate Clip for ChefAlarm and DOT
ChefAlarm by ThermoWorks - (Yellow)
For those of you who already have the Thermoworks Chef Alarm (which I use for grilling and oven roasting), you will be as delighted as I am that they have just come out with the "pro-series high temp air probe" and oven rack clip to hold it securely in place.
Oven temperature is the key to successful baking so I'm always on the look out for a truly reliable oven thermometer that does not require opening the oven door or peering into a spattered oven window to read the temperature. This is THE ONE!
Oct 25, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
I didn't think I needed another piece of baking equipment but was just proven wrong with the arrival of these wooden 'wands,' designed for rolling pastry into perfectly even sheets.
The 'wands' are made from hard maple with a hole drilled into one end so that they can be hung from a hook. The set includes wands of the following sizes: 1/16"/1.6mm, 1/8"/3.18 mm, 3/16"/4.67 mm, and 1/4"/6.35 mm.
The dough is placed on the counter between two of the 'wands' and the rolling pin rides over the pastry until it is flattened to the thickness determined by the height of the 'wands' that serve as 'tracks' for the pin.
This system is far superior to that of rubber rings placed on the opposing ends of a rolling pin as they are a fixed size and the rubber rings become thinner when stretched over the pin.
They can be purchased from the manufacturer.
Oct 01, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
I am a fool for equipment that does the best possible job and this is IT! Prior to receiving the Crack'em I found that the best way to crack eggs was to set a paper towel on the counter and rap the side of the egg sharply against it. There was always a question of just how sharp a rap was required and also, very quickly, the towel got saturated with dripping egg white, especially when several eggs needed to be cracked.
The Crack'em is a small tray with a single slightly raised edge that works effortlessly to crack the egg, catching all the drips so that you lose none of the egg white. The cracked egg can then be poured into the mixing bowl, and the Crack'em can be washed in the dishwasher.
It is always advisable to crack only one egg at a time as once in a great while one may encounter a spoiled one. The Crack'em is one of these tools like the Beater Blade that makes me wonder just how I lived without it. I would get a bunch of them to serve as the perfect stocking stuffer for your baking friends. They will bless you!
And if you really want to be a good sport, go to this link instead, and for a nominal fee you can help kickstart the project to help pay for initial manufacturing costs. You will get one or more Crack'ems and keep this valuable little piece of equipment available. I just did.
To order from Amazon, click this here:
Crack'em (Cobalt Blue)
Apr 12, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
As most of you know, I am a major proponent of weighing ingredients rather than using volume. My first book, The Cake Bible, was the first cookbook for the home baker to use ounces and grams as well as cups. That was over 25 years ago and gradually the wonderfully precise and near effortless process of weighing for baking has caught on.
I knew that it was here to stay when Escali, maker of the finest scales for laboratory and home baking, contacted me about producing a scale with my name and criteria.
The Rose Scale is a beautifully designed scale of the highest quality and durability. Its weighing range of up to 13 pounds/6 kilograms in increments of 0.1 ounce/1 gram which is ideal for baking and cooking.
The scale can be operated by A/C adaptor as well as by battery. When operated by battery, it has an automatic shutoff, but when using the optional adaptor, the scale stays on until it is turned off, which I prefer because the scale doesn't inconveniently time out when I am in the middle of weighing and get distracted for a few minutes. The scale is small and compact, not taking up much counter space.
The Rose Scale's adjustable-angle backlight display is easy to read even when using pans that are larger than the platform, which is easily removable. The display and the buttons are sealed to protect against accidental spills. There is also a tare button to remove the weight of the container and each ingredient after it is added.
Escali Rose Levy Bakeware Digital Scale - Multi-Purpose - Rose
Feb 15, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
Thermoworks, producer of the Thermapen, my favorite instant read thermometer, has recently created The ChefAlarm: an accurate probe thermometer with alarm, ideal for use to determine and be alerted to desired finished temperature of food in both ovens and grills. They've also designed a simple device that clips onto an oven rack and secures the probe, enabling you to use the ChefAlarm as an oven thermometer. It is highly accurate and has a maximum temperature of 700F/371C.
When using the ChefAlarm for a roast chicken, for example, the probe is inserted into the thigh. The probe's cable feeds through the side of the oven door (or grill cover) into the sturdy device that can be magnitized onto the side of the oven or placed on a nearby counter. The device can be set for a minimum and a maximum temperature. An adjustable volume alarm will sound when it reaches the minimum temperature and again when it reaches the maximum.
I love using the ChefAlarm in my gas grill, especially in this exceptionally cold winter weather. As the probe should not be subjected to the direct flame, I turn off the burner under the probe after preheating the grill. I can monitor the progress through my dining room window and stay warm indoors until the alarm sounds and it's time to take the food off the grill.
Feb 01, 2014 | From the kitchen of Rose
and I love them both. For many years I didn't drink tea at all, associating it with childhood colds and fevers when my mother would bring a cup of hot tea to my bedside. Actually I didn't become a big tea appreciator until i visited Kate Coldrick in Devon, England, and discovered her husband Oliver's favorite tea: Dilmah Premium Ceylon .
I learned from Kate to allow it to brew for only 2 minutes instead of the usual 4 to 6 to keep it from becoming bitter. And I like to add a teaspoon of honey and a touch of heavy cream. But the most important thing about brewing tea after the quality of the tea itself is the quality and temperature of the water. Different types of teas require different water temperatures to reach their peak of flavor. I've had Japanese green tea that required water that was barely warm. I find that black tea has the best flavor when brewed with water around 203F/95C which is below boiling. Using water that is too hot can result in bitterness.
Until recently, I had been heating the water for the tea in the microwave and often I didn't catch it before it came to a boil. Then I discovered the Chef'sChoice "SmartKettle," which makes it possible to set precise temperatures and knew at once that it was the answer. Not only does it maintain the temperature setting until ready to pour, once shut off and cooled the illuminated read-out doubles as a room thermometer! And is is faster than the microwave.
Oct 26, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
You may find it odd to know that a baker is a devotee of knives but here's why:
My great grandfather, Adolph Lansman, who was born in Hungary, and emigrated to America before the turn of the 20th century, brought the now ubiquitous knife brands Henckles and Trident to the United States. It was he who taught his grandson, my father, how to sharpen knives. And it was my father who taught me this art. One of the things I treasure is a skinning knife my father made. And I have amassed a huge collection of knives over the years. The photo above represents about two-thirds of them.
I had pretty much decided that I never needed another knife until I received this one from my long-time friend and publicist par excellence Rachel Litner, who represents top quality products such as Cuisinart. She is also representing the VMatter Company who is producing this extraordinary cutlery collection.
What immediately caught my attention was the claim that these knives keep their sharp edge for years as opposed to months. This is because they are made from a new and exclusive amorphous alloy. This alloy is said to possess the best properties of metal and glass. Also, the alloy is 20% lighter, 250% stronger than titanium, and highly resistant to corrosion.
The question that came to my mind was how it would be possible to sharpen a metal that is harder and stronger than most shapening devices. The answer: The knife will hold a workably sharp edge for years, though if you want to have it honed to an ultra-sharp edge again, it needs to be sent back to VMatter. A special slurry that contains microscopic diamond chips is used to perfectly sharpen it.
Since the chef's knife model has arrived, I have found myself reaching for it with pleasure every time I need to cut something. I have found it to be as promised--exceptionally sharp. And I am eagerly awaiting the 4 inch paring knife that is due to arrive before the end of the year. Those are the two knives that get the most use in my kitchen.
Here is the link to VMatter's site.
Sep 28, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
When I travel to do demos, the two indispensable pieces of equipment i pack in my carryon, which go through airport security without a hitch, are a small metal spatula and a small whisk. I rarely find either one in demo kitchens and I find it hard to bake without them. Enter the Aerolatte Chef, my new magic wand.
I discovered the Aerolatte several years ago and found it to be the ideal milk foamer for cappuccino. More recently, I discovered that it was also ideal for whipping a small amount of heavy cream. When the cream would be whipped to stiff peaks the aerolatte's motor would come to a full stop. But I just discovered the Aerolatte Chef with its variable speed. Not only can it start on low, It is more powerful so that it doesn't stop whisking until you stop pressing the switch. It is also ideal for whipping small amounts of egg white--always a difficult task even with a whisk. Now I reach for it for recipes where I write egg, lightly beaten. And now I'll be able to make a one egg white Italian Meringue with ease.
Here's the link:
Aerolatte Variable Speed Chef's Frother and Mini Kitchen Whisk
Sep 16, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
Bob Trinque, product manager of NewMetro Design (of BeaterBlade fame, and my Rose™ product line), has been in the equipment business for years, representing many of the world's top companies. So when he sets out to create a product, it's with one eye toward the original (what's missing and needed) and the other toward the ideal (what would be the best version of it).
The FlexPour, which comes in small and medium sizes, is so well designed it has a permanent place beside my stand mixer. It's not every day a can't live without item is born. This is one of those days.
The medium 5 cup size is available on Amazon. Click here: flexpour
Jun 29, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
I must have tried every new electric corded milk frother on the market but now my search for the perfect frother is over. My favorite handheld model, the Aerolatte, has long been my top choice for traveling. (I once had to explain to airport security what it was used for and that it was not a weapon.) So when I discovered recently that the Aerolatte company is now also producing a corded model I suspected it would be the ultimate for home use.
Not only does the Aerolatte Grande Hot Frothing Jug produce the most velvety milk froth for my cappuccino, it also does it the most quickly (and who wants to wait a moment longer than necessary when the desire for coffee hits!)
HIC Brands that Cook Aerolatte Stainless Steel Compact Hot Frothing Jug, 11-1/2-Ounce
There's an added bonus to the foamed milk. There is always a tiny bit of caramelized milk in the froth. It reminds me of the crust at the bottom of a rice cooker which, at first, I thought was a flaw but soon learned that it is a treasure. The little bit of caramelized milk is now something which I look forward to when enjoying my cappuccini!
Jun 22, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
in New Products
The Baking Steel and has just replaced my Hearth Kit in my Gaggenau oven where it fits perfectly and produces the best pizza crust.
My good friend Robin Kline sang its praises and after checking with bread baking guru, Peter Reinhart, who also had great things to say about it I was desperate to try it out.
Sure enough, instead of taking the usual 10 minutes, my pizza baked in 6 minutes to a beautifully crisp result. Here's why:
Andris Lagsdin, who works for a steel company in Masachusetts, was inspired to produce this 15 pound, 16 inch by 14 inch steel sheet by Nathan Myhrvold in his book Modernist Cuisine. Myhrvold stated: "the best tool to use for making the perfect crust would be a piece of steel...steel is a more conductive cooking surface than a brick oven's stone. Because of that conductivity, it cooks faster and more evenly at a lower temperature, resulting in a beautiful, thin, crispy crust."
Just think what a beautiful job it will do to make a crisp bottom crust for pies! And if there are any sticky spillovers, the steel can be cleaned in self-cleaning oven.
I am not, however fully retiring my Hearth Kit as I intend to use it for bread baking in my large Wolf oven. Given the amount of stone, which includes both the bottom piece and the side pieces, I imagine it will retain more of the oven heat after opening the door to set in the bread. However, I am sorely tempted to replace it with the 30 pound version of the oven steel, which would no doubt work as well for oven heat retention without occupying the limiting space of the hearth kit's side walls.
The 15 pound baking steel is currently a steel for $79 on this site.
May 18, 2013 | From the kitchen of Rose
I've been enjoying 'blackened' string beans since Paul Prudhomme was a little boy and blackened redfish wasn't yet a gleam in his eye! That's because my grandmother once burned the string beans and I found it to be so delicious I always threatened not to eat the string beans unless she burned them.
Some years ago, my dear friend Elizabeth Karmel, renowned grilling author and chef, taught me how to make grilled string beans. She is such a skilled griller only one or two beans ever slipped between the grates but when I tried, I mourned each of several beans that slipped through. I tried a grill pan with holes but had to be very careful as the ones available were all very shallow and didn't have large enough holes to expose enough of the string beans to the flame. This is no longer a problem as Elizabeth has created the ideal grill basket, Elizabeth Karmel's Grill Friends Sizzlin' Skillet Grill Basket. Its curved sides enable you to toss the beans without risk of a single one leaping out. The wire mesh is strong but fine, leaving the maximum open space for 'blackening.'
The grill basket is easy to clean and even dishwasher safe. And it comes with a great-sounding recipe for "firecracker shrimp," which gives new definition to "shrimp in the basket."
I posted the recipe for grilled string beans about three years ago. Here it is again but this time in the basket!
For beans with a little bite, simply toss the washed and trimmed string beans with salt and olive oil and then to toss them in the grill basket and continue tossing them with tongs until they are deliciously browned, partially blackened, and beginning to shrivel.
For a softer texture, par boil the beans in salted water for 3 minutes, drain them, and toss them in the olive oil and salt, though sometimes I use melted bacon fat. Then into the grill basket they go to be browned and blackened as above.
Either way, season with lots of freshly ground pepper.
Note: The handle is easy to remove for grilling and to replace when removing the basket from the grill, but it is not designed for emptying the beans into a serving bowl as the basket will flip over. Use tongs to lift the beans into the bowl.
Sep 23, 2012 | From the kitchen of Rose
It is so new it's not even in the stores or online yet but if you call NewMetro: 800-624-1526, and ask for the New Rose™ Line you can place orders using a credit card.
Alternatively, you can wait until October when it will be available in stores and on line around the country. Here's a preview of the line (You can also check out the site directly for more information):
I consider this piece of equipment to be the most significant invention and improvement to baking since the stand mixer or food processor. Not only does it save time, it also mixes more thoroughly than the standard paddle attachment.
This micro grater fits in the palm of your hand and works perfectly for citrus zest, Parmesan cheese, chocolate, and even mincing garlic without retaining odor. I place it on my kitchen scale, tare out the weight, and know exactly how much zest I have for my recipe.
This juicer has the perfect shape for easily extracting maximum juice. It also has precise built-in measurements both on the container and the storage lid.
This rose bowl is the ideal ergonomic shape for using a handheld electric beater or whisk. It
whips cream at record speed with no need to chill the bowl or beaters.
I designed this 1.75 quart pot to be perfectly sized and shaped for making caramel, sugar syrups, and sauces. The chemical-free light grey ceramic based nonstick coating is environmentally friendly and does not pose the risk of emitting toxic fumes. It releases all food more easily than any other cooking surface, which ensures maximum release of caramel and other sticky syrups.
This 2 quart double-walled pot, with an internal water chamber for safely heating and keeping water at a gentle simmer without steam, is my pot of choice for making lemon curd, cream sauces, and even for melting chocolate.
Cook & Store
If you only had one saucepan in the kitchen it would have to be this one. The flared sides of this durable 4 quart saucepan facilitate reduction of liquids and the airtight cover makes it ideal to store the contents after cooking and cooling.
Crêpe and Pancake Griddle
I use this pan for so many things especially sautéeing, it has a permanent place on my cooktop. The ceramic nonstick surface is so smooth and slippery I don't even need to use butter or oil to prevent sticking.