I just did something I’ve been meaning to do for ages. That is compare different weights of flours.
I did not do this for grams though, foolishly, so I will have to go back and do it all over again. I find it much easier to remember ounce numbers (because they are smaller…!)
Cake flour (UK - heat-treated, unbleached) dipped - 4.55 oz
Cake flour ( “) spooned - 3.95 oz
Plain flour dipped - 5 oz
Plain flour spooned - 4.10 oz.
Long, long ago, during my earlier years in the UK, I learned from the Scottish WRI cookery book that a cup of flour = 4 oz, a cup of sugar = 6 oz, plus I already knew a cup of fat = 8 oz. The context here was not converting US recipes but being on a small island off the west coast of Scotland all summer with no scales and, indeed, no measuring cups (I used mugs).
Though my figures above would seem to show this isn’t quite right, in fact for years and years I used these equivalencies and they worked fine. So I think I might just go back to them for the purposes of switching US cup measurements in recipes, to weight, which is easier and more reliable.